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Abrasive Wheels for Varnish

Essegi Abrasivi offers a wide range of shapeable abrasive wheels to use within sanding and finishing cycles of different kinds of varnished profiles.

The experience  acquired  in years of test activities and practical applications in the industrial  series production, has given us a chance to develop a special type of wheels suitable for every type of varnish; these wheels are designed to meet the most varied needs and they provide a wide range of combinations of use.  This approach enabled us to face the increasingly  demanding market  that offers a wide range of varnishes (polyurethane, polyester, nitro, impregnating), whose technologies  are developing extremely rapidly,  providing an adequate response to problems  regarding environmental and ecological issues  and the Operator Security Plan without forgetting the quality  aspect related to the great availability of finishing features by using   gloss, shiny, matt and transparent varnishes or paints for antique effect  with the possibility to create different colour combinations.

Main Visual Features

Undoubtedly,  the main feature of these wheels is their colour, which ranges from light to dark green and grey. This variety of colours  relates to the type of abrasive material used to produce  the wheels. A further peculiarity of these wheels  relates to the binders used to hold together the abrasive grains: they have different levels of  flexibility, stiffness and porosity depending on  their function within the sanding cycles of the varnishes.

General considerations

  1. Wheels and abrasive paper sheets have an abrasive grit that must not be equalised; as an indication, within the same type of sanding, an abrasive 100 grit wheel corresponds to an abrasive 150 grit cloth or paper (each abrasive wheel shows a specific grit level: by increasing its grit level up to 50%, it’s possible to find the corresponding grit of the abrasive cloth or paper).
  2. The choice of the abrasive wheel relates to the type of sanding machine on which it will be employed. The range of this type of machines is extremely wide, starting from machines  equipped exclusively with wheels, to combined machines using both belts and wheels.
  3. When sanding varnished pieces on machines equipped exclusively with wheels, the golden rule is that the first wheel  must rough out, i.e. to be aggressive on the lacquered surface, whereas the second wheel  must finish and equalize the work done by the previous wheel.
    • ROUGHING-OUT WHEEL: employed to cut the lacquered surface removing possible imperfections  arising from thick covering  varnishes. This type of wheel is generally produced with medium- large abrasive grits.
    • FINISHING WHEEL:  employed to equalize the work done by roughing – out belts or wheels, Considering that these wheels are generally produced with very fine grits, they ensure a total scratches-free final effect.
  4. On combined belts+wheels machines, the abrasive wheels finish the work previously done by the belts. On sanding machines especially designed to sand hard varnishes such as polyester, the wheel heads are placed before and after the belts (wheel+belt+wheel). The wheels placed before the belts have the purpose of pre-sanding the varnish removing that patina  that appears on the surface while preserving the abrasive tapes from those blocks that  form during this type of operations; this particular configuration improves their performance level. The final wheels equalize the work done by the abrasive belts.
  5. The structure of the abrasive wheels is compact and homogeneous; they are characterized by different flexibility and elasticity depending on their use. . This particular structure  simplifies  the moulding process, i.e the manufacturing cycle through which the wheel gradually takes the required shape: in this way  the sanding operation is slightly easier  particularly in the critical areas such as sharp edges .
  6. It should be borne in mind that, on the assumption of the same abrasive grit, the wheel  ensures a better finishing effect than the abrasive belt.  The expression “better finishing effect”, refers to the opportunity to  remove as much as possible the “scratches” from the sanded surface; this phenomenon is particularly highlighted on lacquered or coloured surfaces.
  7. The method to follow when choosing the most suitable abrasive wheel for a particular type of lacquer, must  include several elements. In this case,  here are the main points to  take into account:
    • The type of varnish (acrylic, polyester, polyurethane, nitro, etc.);
    • The method  of application of the varnish on the surface to sand (airless or airmix guns ,  drying cycle in the oven or with UV lamps, or  further methods).
    • The quantity of varnish applied on the profile: the word quantity  refers to the thickness or layer of varnish on the profile. The main cycles suitable for achieving this layer are spray and draw-plate painting.   Within the spray painting there could be one single layer ( corresponding to an “open pore” finishing effect), or several layers (  corresponding to a “closed pore” finishing effect):the profile,  charachterized by two or more  layers,  arises from a spray painting cycle, a period of drying in the hoven and a series of further steps performed through the same method without needing a mid-point sanding cycle    leading to the creation of a thick layer of varnish  so compact that it  becomes part of the profile itself. The draw-plate painting gives the possibility to create in a single operation a layer of varnish with the desired thickness.
    • The  desired finishing effect (bright,  matt,  antique effect with special characteristics , etc.)

SV wheel: a very compact and semi-rigid wheel  characterized by medium – large abrasive grit (SC silicon carbide 80-100-120 grit):   it is employed within the roughing-out cycle of surfaces treated with at least four or five layers of very thick polyurethane  varnishes .

FVA wheel: a very compact and semi-rigid wheel characterized by “medium- fine and fine ” abrasive grits (silicon carbide 150-180-220-280-320-400 grit).  It is employed within the finishing cycles of surfaces treated with four or five layers of very thick polyurethane varnishes. This type of abrasive wheel is available in a wide range of grits and it can be employed both as mid-wheel with medium-fine grits (150-180 grit) and as a finishing wheel with fine grits (220-280-320-400 grit). The finishing effect achieved using these wheels ensures a smooth surface, completely scratches-free and it is therefore suitable for polished, bright and pigmented  profiles. This is a compact and homogeneous wheel perfectly suited  forany kind of profile; FVA wheel keeps its shape up until  its complete usage  and it sands perfectly both the angles and the sharp  edges.

FVR wheel: arises from FVA wheel with which it  shares the main characteristics regarding firmness and finishing features. s. However,  this wheel is more elastic and it is available with  fine grits (silicon carbide 220-280-320-400 grit). Thanks to its features, FVR wheel can be used within the finishing cycles of surfaces treated with three or four layers of very thick polyurethane varnishes.

FVM wheel:  arises from FVA wheel with which shares the main characteristic regarding the firmness. However, this wheel ismore  flexible and it is available in very fine grits (silicon carbide 220-280-320-400 grit). Thanks to its features, it can be employed  within the finishing cycles of surfaces treated with three or four layers of very thick polyurethane varnishes.

Thanks to their features, FVA, FVR and FVM wheels can be used not only on sanding machines equipped exclusively with wheel groups after the sanding cycle performed through roughingout wheels (SVA, SVM, SVB), but also on combined sanding machines using both belts and wheels in order to equalize the previous work of the sanding belts.

FTM wheel: a very compact and rigid abrasive wheel available in “medium-fine” and “fine” grit (silicon carbide 150-180-220-280-320-400 grit).  Due to itsrigidity, it can be used within the finishing cycles of polyester varnishes and on combined sanding machines, after the abrasive belts. During the finishing operation on polyester  varnishes, it is prudent to avoid the use of  too fine grits that could cause problems  while applying the finishing  varnishes. Thanks to its compact structure and rigidity, this abrasive wheel ensures an efficient sanding cycle  down to the last detail keeping the profile’s shape up until its complete usage.

ACX/2 wheel: abrasive wheel characterized by very special features: it owns a very compact but not rigid structure, equipped with a not too flexible support that bends under the slightest pressure. It is available in one single grit that  might be called “medium-fine”.

This wheel  provides an adequate response to the new needs of the market where the use of newly designed and less polluting  varnishes prevails.

I Its special structure transforms this wheel in a multi-purpose wheel which can be employed to sand UV varnishes characterized by strong surfaces and very soft inner  layers, polyurethane  or two-components varnishes, that are  not too covering and should not be sanded too aggressively, and further types of sufficiently thick  varnishes. This wheel can also be used within the sanding cycles of  varnishes, plasters or glues of animal origin: generally these products are very soft and easy to sand; however if on one hand they can be  ground to dust without great difficulties, on the other hand their surface temperature tends to increase and can therefore cause a series of problems which can be prevented using this particular type of  abrasive wheel. It is therefore essential to give a precise definition:   ACX/2 wheel is a light roughing out not too aggressive wheel.

ACX/3 wheel: this abrasive wheel  shares the same features  with ACX/2 wheel,  however it is more aggressive. It is available in one single grit that might be called “medium –  large”. It is  basically not different from the previous one;  it is recommendable to use it  within the sanding cycles of lacquered profiles with minor flaws or in case of particularly hard varnishes or plasters.